[July 29, 2015]- Plant diversity, identification & importance
Blog Entry Written by Team: Scrambled-egg slime mold
Team Members: Fei Jin (Fudan University), Zixiang Li (Beijing Normal University), Sarah Minnes (Memorial University), Natalie Wong (University of Toronto)
Weather: Sunny, Temp: 21-32℃
Today we started the day with Dr. Dale Kristensen from the Department of Biology at Queen’s University. He gave a lecture on freshwater plant ecology. In our introductory lecture before we went out into the field, Dr. Kristensen gave the class a background on the fundamental ecology roles of wetlands. As a class we then packed in the QUBS vehicles and drove out to our first wetland site of the day located near Indian Lake Road (UTM coordinates- 18T 0394228, 4937237). Dr. Kristensen explained that there are four different categories of wetlands: marsh, swamp, bog and fen. Marshes are dominated by both submergent and emergent species, and have abundant cattails (Typha latifolia). Swamps are usually dominated by shrubs and trees. Bogs (which are not found in the QUBS area) are acidic and characterized by sphagnum moss. Fens are usually sedge dominated, and are also not found in the QUBS area. Wetlands can be either palustrine (inland not associated with an open body of water) or lacustrine (associated with a lake).
Some macrophytes in the wetlands we visited included: waterlily (Nymphaeaceae), cattails (Typha latifolia), eelgrass (Vallisneria), and arrowhead (Sagittaria). We also talked about invasive species such as Purple Loosetrife (Lythrum salicaria) and Frog-bit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae). Poisonous plants such as poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) and wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) were also discussed.
After visiting the first wetland site, we then went back to QUBS and went out to the boathouse to look at submergent plants such as duckweed (Lemnaceae) and coontail (Ceratophyllum). After that we walked out to Cow Island Marsh and learned about additional different types of macrophytes and about beavers in wetlands. We then returned to the QUBS lodge for a debrief on what we learned.
In the evening the class attended the weekly QUBS public lecture. This was given by PhD candidate James Sinclair, who is supervised by Dr. Shelley Arnott from Queen’s University. The lecture was entitled, “Strength in size or numbers- disentangling the factors involved in the establishment of non-native species”. This was very interesting and we learned about different components of propagule pressure (e.g., size, numbers, condition, diversity). James’ research was aiming to determine if propagule size or propagule numbers were more significant in the spread of invasive species in Canada. After this lecture commenced, the class was then given a lecture by Dr. Lougheed on amphibian diversity and conservation. Some of the species we talked about were different types of caecilians, salamanders, and frogs. Dr. Lougheed showed the class a video of the Darwin’s Frog (Rhinoderma darwinii). After guarding the eggs laid by the females, the male of this frog swallows the surviving eggs from the female and takes care of the growing tadpoles in it’s vocal sack. The tadpoles develop into tiny froglets and they jump out of the male frog’s mouth. It was a very interesting video!
Overall, today was a great day both in the field and in the classroom and we look forward to tomorrow.
Natalie Wong （多伦多大学）
今天，来自女王大学生物系的Dale Kristensen 博士给我们上了一堂有关淡水植物生态系统的课程。我们去野外湿地考察前，Kristensen博士给我们系统介绍了淡水植物生态系统的基础知识，包括湿地的地位、初级生产力、生物多样性、水环境重要性、群落演替、富营养化、水体污染等内容。之后，我们来到了第一个湿地考察地点（UTM coordinates- 18T 0394228, 4937237），该地点在印第安湖路旁边。Kristensen博士介绍，这里有四种类型的湿地，分别是marsh, swamp, bog 与 fen。Marsh类湿地有大量沉水植物和挺水植物，包括香蒲 (Typha latifolia)；Swamp类湿地主要由灌木和树林组成；Bog类湿地在QUBS没有分布，其水体一般呈酸性，拥有大量泥炭藓；Fen类湿地在QUBS也没有分布，一般长有大量莎草。湿地还可以分为沼泽型和湖泊型。
在考察点我们认识到的植物包括莲 (Nymphaeaceae)、香蒲 (Typha latifolia)、鳗草 (Vallisneria)和慈姑（Sagittaria)。我们还辨别了一些入侵物种，比如Purple Loosetrife (Lythrum salicaria)和Frog-bit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae)，以及一些有毒物种，比如毒葛（Toxicodendron radicans）与野生欧洲防风草（Pastinaca sativa）。
晚上，来自女王大学的Dr. Shelley Arnott的博士生James Sinclair带来了一场精彩的公开课，标题是“Strength in size or numbers- disentangling the factors involved in the establishment of non-native species”，主要介绍了入侵物种繁殖压力的组成成分，包括入侵物种的个体数量，入侵次数，入侵条件，物种多样性等。James的研究主要针对入侵物种个体数量和入侵次数对加拿大的入侵物种繁殖扩散的重要性。